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Umm El-Jimal
Umm el-Jimal, also known as Umm al-Jimal or Umm idj-Djimal, is a village in Northern Jordan approximately 17 kilometers east of Mafraq. It is primarily notable for the substantial ruins of a Byzantine and early Islamic town which are clearly visible above the ground, as well as an older Roman village (locally referred to as al-Herri) located to the southwest of the Byzantine ruins.
The village of Umm el-Jimal originated in the first century A.D. as a rural suburb of the ancient Nabataean capital of Bostra. A number of Greek and Nabataean inscriptions found on the site date the village to this time. During this period, the population of the site is estimated at 2000-3000 people. Upon the foundation of Provincia Arabia in A.D. 106 the Romans took over the village as Emperor Trajan conquered the surrounding lands. In the village, the Romans erected a number of buildings including the Praetorium and the large reservoir near the castellum. After the Rebellion of Queen Zenobia in A.D. 275, Roman countermeasures included the construction of a fort (Tetrarchic castellum) that housed a military garrison. As Roman influence in the area gradually diminished, the area once again became a rural village under control of the new Byzantine Empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Umm el-Jimal prospered as a farming and trading town in which the population jumped to an estimated 4000 to 6000 people. However, after the Muslim conquests of the 7th century A.D, the village population diminished even though building projects and renovations continued to take place. In AD 747/749 an earthquake destroyed much of the area and Umm el-Jimal, like other towns and villages, was abandoned. The village remained unpopulated for nearly 1100 years until the modern community developed in the twentieth century.